Introduction to Internet
Life today is highly dependent on computers – since they do most of the important work and are found everywhere. From homes, to police stations, government institutions, schools, airports, shopping malls and military facilities, they are everywhere. However, the computer would never have been so popular and widely used if it was not for the Internet.
What is Internet ?
A network is a group of computers and other objects which are connected to each other with wires, satellite or some other medium. When many such networks across the globe are connected to each other for communication, it is called an Internet. Thus, Internet is the interconnection of a large number of computer networks all over the world that can share information with one another. It is also called as International Network. It can also be called as a network of networks. Internet has revolutionized the world and made it inti global village. Information can be shared with someone across the world in a matter of seconds. It is being used by millions of people to share ideas and to search information on any topic.
History of Internet
The Internet started in the early 1960’s as an America military project for the United States Department of Defense
and was called ARPANET( advanced Research Projects Agency Network). It has since then evolved into a massive public spiderweb. Access to the ARPANET was explained in 1981
when the National Science Foundation(NSF) funded the Computers Science Network (CSNET). In 1982, the Internet protocol suite(TCP/IP) was introduced as the standard networking protocol on the ARPANET.
Who Owns the Internet
No single organization owns or controls the Internet. There are organization that determine the Internet’s structure and how it works, but they don’t have any ownership over the Internet itself. The Internet consists of lots of different parts and each of which has an owner. Some of these owners may control the quality and level of access that you have to the Internet. But, someone needs to take care of these services and there are several organizations that oversee the Internet’s infrastructure and protocols.
The Internet Society : It is a non-profit organization that develops Internet standards, policies and education.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) :It is an international organization with an open membership policy that has many working groups. Each working group collectively takes care and tries to maintain the Internet’s architecture and stability along with internet security.
The Internet Architecture Board(IAB) :It is an IETF committee and it aims to oversee the designs of Internet protocols and standards.
The Internet Corporation for Assigned names and Numbers (ICANN) :a private non profit corporation, ICANN manages the Internet’s Domain Name System (DNS). ICANN is responsible for making sure that every domain name links to the correct IP address. ICANN holds a lot of power over anyone who wants to register a domain name.
The physical network that carries Internet traffic between different computer systems is called the Internet backbone. These days several large companies provide the routers and cable that make up the Internet backbone and they are the Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Cable and DSL companies are examples of smaller ISPs. These companies cover what the industry calls the last mile, ie the distance between the end consumer and Internet connectivity.
Internet service providers(ISP) are the companies that provide Internet services to us and they also follow these rules. The ISP provides a bridge between all the other computers in the world which are part of the Internet and your computer. ISP’s also offer various Internet connection speeds for a monthly fee. In India the popular ISP’s are Airtel, Tata Dococmo, MTNL, Reliance, Vodafone etc.
Requirements of Internet
You all know that in today’s world Internet is used in all fields. But there are certain things which are essential to be able to connect to Internet.
The basic requirements of Internet are-
- A computer with good processor
- Modern (modulator-demodulator)
- A telephone connection
- A browser software
- Internet service provider.
Connecting to Internet
You can connect to the Internet in any of the following ways.
Using a Modem
Dial-up connection is a slower connection but still used by many people. In this method you need-
- A modern external or internal( Internal modem is present in most computers these days)
- A dedicated telephone line.
- A computer to connect to the Internet with the proper software.
In this connection you can occasionally surf the net and send e-mails etc as it slow. You can either make calls or connect to the internet at a time, if there is only one telephone connection.
Using a Broadband Connection
DSL- Digital subscriber line: This is a much faster connection and you can do many exciting things like playing games online, shopping, watching movies etc. with much ease. This service is provided by the cable operator or the ISP’s (Internet Service Provider).
Wireless Broadband: You can also use your connection as a wireless connection but then you will need to use a wireless modem or router. This will allow you to connect any device to the Internet using the Wi-Fi. You can make calls even while using the Internet.
Cable network provides an internet connection through a cable modem and operates over cable TV lines. The speed is quite fast. It has two outlets- one for the T.V and other for the computer.
Satellite accesses the Internet via a satellite in Earth’s orbit. The signal travels a huge distance from earth to satellite and back again. This connection is hence slower as compared to cable and DSL.
Using a Smartphone
You can also use your smart phone as an Internet connection for your computer. In this case you need a special software which allows the smartphone to act as a modem or wireless access point for the computer. You can also share the Internet connection of your phone by either creating a Hotspot or using Bluetooth.
Wireless Mobile Broadband
This is a high speed Internet. It is a small USB device that allows you to access the Internet. You can use a 3G dongle or a 4G dongle. It can also be referred to as a USB modem, an Internet stick, an USB network adapter or USB mobile broadband stick. It is like a flash drive or pen drive and can be simply plugged into the laptop or PC. It is very Popular as it can be carried anywhere and is useful while travelling.